Most cited publications in arthroscopy
How to cite this article: Kambhampati SB, Vaishya R. Most cited publications in arthroscopy. J Arthrosc Surg Sports Med 2020;1(2):212-7.
Arthroscopy is a rapidly expanding and sub-specializing field of orthopedic surgery. We set out to list the most cited papers in the field of arthroscopy to get an insight of how influential and to what disciplines these papers belong to. We have listed most cited papers from Scopus in different categories which included individual joint related arthroscopy, for each decade and based on the type of study from the titles of citations. This report will help the novice arthroscopic surgeon to gain an insight into the fields and types of research that are happening and guide to explore the literature on this subject. We discussed the advantages and limitations of such a search and listing.
Arthroscopy has come a long way since it was first described by Kenji Takagi who used a cystoscope to examine tuberculous knees. We set out to look at the most cited articles in the history of arthroscopy from early 1950s to 2019. This knowledge would serve as a record of the most impactful articles in the field of arthroscopy published since the citations were given importance, until the current date. Some path breaking articles like the first publications on knee arthroscopy, however, not necessarily get cited most often. This report will help as a starting point for novice arthroscopic surgeons to explore the literature on this subject and give an idea of the research trends in the listed categories. We have discussed the advantages and limitations of citations. Similar study has not been reported before in the literature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A search in the database of SCOPUS was done on April 1, 2020, using the search strategy (arthroscope*) with filters from 1900 to 2019. This gave an output of 50,373 articles.
We arranged top five most cited articles in four categories, based on (a) anatomic location (hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow, and wrist), (b) type of study (systematic review, review, RCT, case report, randomized, randomized controlled, and met-analysis), and (c) each decade these were published with citation of at least one. Articles with no citations were not included in the study. All the above was based on a search within the title of the citation. Hence, any article which does not have the above keywords, even though related, may not be picked up by the search. This information is not given by SCOPUS analysis by default.
We have used Microsoft Excel 365 for listing and analysis of the output.
The total number of articles from this search was 50373. Table 1 gives the most cited articles for this topic for the whole search. The name of the author along with the year of publication is given with the number of citations in bracket for each entry in Tables 1-4. The related reference is cited as superscript next to the author name. The sum of all citations for all the articles published before 1970 was <100.
|Hip||Zhang et al. 2008 (1740)||Ganz et al. 2001 (944)||Phillippon et al. 2009 (547)||Zhang et al. 2007 (543)||McCarthy et al. 2001 (424)|
|Knee||Brittberg et al. 1994 (4100)||Zhang et al. 2008 (1740)||Peterson et al. 2000 (1135)||Moseley et al. 2002 (1095)||Knutsen et al. 2004 (943)|
|Ankle||Van Dijk et al. 2000 (327)||Hangody et al. 2001 (323)||Harrington 1979 (321)||Hinterman et al. 2002 (281)||Lo et al. 2003(244)|
|Shoulder||Snyder et al. 1990 (968)||Burkhart et al. 2003 (719)||Sher et al. 1995(710)||Boileau et al. 2006 (561)||Gummesson et al.2003 (509)|
|Elbow||Cain Jr et al. 2003 (265)||Kelly et al. 2001 (240)||Rohrbough et al. 2002 (234)||Andrews et al. 1995 (214)||O’Driscoll et al. 1992 (213)|
|Wrist||Zlatkin et al. 1989 (165)||Corso et al. 1997 (153)||Schweitzer et al. 1992 (150)||Thornburg 1999 (125)||Potter et al. 1997 (124)|
|Systematic review||Zhang et al. 2007 (543)||Zengerink et al. 2010 (310)||Nelson 2014(280)||Harris 2010(236)||Dinnes 2003 (221)|
|Randomized||Knutsen et al. 2004 (943)||Knutsen et al. 2007 (665)||Kirkley et al. 2008 (424)||Gudas et al. 2005 (408)||Muneta et al. 2007 (338)|
|Met-analysis||Freedman et al. 2003 (498)||Prodromos et al. 2007 (438)||De Jesus et al. 2009 (310)||Goldblatt et al. 2005 (217)||Benjaminse et al. 2006 (211)|
|Randomized controlled||Castricini et al. 2011 (325)||Franceschi et al.2007 (296)||Buvanendran et al. 2003 (283)||Gobbi et al. 2006 (222)||Haringman et al. 2006 (183)|
|Case report||Wakitani et al. 2004 (265)||Byrd 1996(167)||Sanchez et al. 2003 (162)||Petty et al. 2004 (138)||Larson et al. 2011 (134)|
|Review||Curl et al. 1997 (894)||Zhang et al. 2007 (543)||Zengerink et al. 2010 (310)||Kelly et al. 2005 (302)||Philippon et al. 2007 (284)|
|2010–2019||Guyatt et al. 2012 (1159)||Falck-Ytter et al. 2012 (1093)||Goldring et al. 2011 (538)||Sellam et al. 2010 (524)||Sihvonen et al. 2013(408)|
|2000–2009||Zhang et al. 2008 (1740)||Tunis et al. 2003 (1344)||Galatz et al. 2004 (1244)||Peterson et al. 2000 (1135)||Moseley et al. 2002(1095)|
|1990–1999||Brittberg et al. 1994 (4100)||Snyder et al. 1990 (968)||Curl et al. 1997 (894)||Sher et al. 1995 (710)||Kujala et al. 1993 (686)|
|1980–1989||Palmer 1989 (643)||Andrews et al. 1985 (628)||Baratz et al. 1986 (563)||Daniel et al. 1985 (472)||Noyes et al. 1980 (466)|
|1970–1979||Fujisawa et al. 1979 (399)||Harrington 1979 (321)||Thomas et al.1975 (112)||Jackson et al. 1972 (111)||Ficat et al. 1979 (110)|
|1960–1969||Jayson et al. 1968 (30)||Ohnsorge 1969 (5)||Watanabe 1968 (1)||Ohnsorge 1969 (1)|
|1950–1959||Mayer and Burman||Hurter 1955 (3)||Imbert 1956 (1)||Imbert 1957 (1)|
Citations of the articles published in a period of time are used to calculate the impact factor of journals. It is however not clear how a paper becomes influential and what number of citation count is needed to be an influential paper in a subject. However, it is understood that this number is relative to other similar publications in the subject. Nevertheless, most cited papers in a subject indicate that they have a significant message that has been cited most by other researchers in that field. Hence, looking at most cited papers in various categories could indicate the most influential work in that field and are worth going through while looking for information in that field. Our lists will give readers important publications in the relative fields.
In the first decade (from 2010 to 2019), none of the publications in the top 10 were published after 2014. Among the top five, the first two were published in 2012.
The focus of topics in the decade 2010–2020; 2000–2010; 1990–2000; 1980–1990; and 1970–1980, respectively, included: Thomboprophylaxis, osteoarthritis, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), rotator cuff repair; cartilage injuries, and defects and their grading, superior labrum anterior posterior lesions; subacromial decompression, abrasion arthroplasty, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, meniscal tears; and role of arthroscopy in different conditions of the knee.
Table 1 shows that the authors with most citations in the given search strategy are Brittberg et al., Zhang et al., Tunis et al., Galatz et al., and Guyatt et al.[2-6] It can also be seen from their references that there is only one specialist orthopedic journal in the first five most cited articles. That too is a general orthopedic journal. All other journals have a wider readership than just orthopedic surgeons. Nevertheless, these articles have had a significant impact on the knowledge and research in their respective fields. As focus of research and interests change over time, the citation counts could change.
The citations for articles take time to peak. The average is about 7–10 years from the date of publication of a manuscript. This is seen in the list of publications in the first decade. This duration may decrease in the future as the ease, reach, and speed of access to scientific literature increases. It must also be borne in mind that there are limitations and biases involved in the process of analyzing citation counts.[78,79] Nevertheless, this is the best indicator among the indicators currently available in assessing the quality of an article. They also indicate the trend or focus of research during a particular period of time or in a given specialty.
Articles published in high impact factor journals tend to be cited more. It also indicates that these journals publish more high-quality articles that pave the way for new branches of research and hence are cited more. It also sets up a cycle to increase the impact factor since impact factor of journals depends on citations. Articles published in a general journal tend to be cited more than those published in a specialty or a subspecialty journal since the impact factor and readership of general journals is more. For example, an arthroscopy article published in JAMA, NEJM, or BMJ will have more general readership and citations compared to one in JBJS or BJJ which in turn will have more than those compared to a publication in the knee or KSSTA. Important basic science articles also tend to have more citations compared to clinical articles for the same condition since basic science is the foundation over which the knowledge about a particular topic is built and clinical application is the final process.
The analysis of this nature is often challenging and fraught with several limitations similar to our study. First, we took the number of citations as the benchmark for selecting the best papers, which has its limitations, as mentioned before. Second, we took citation counts from one search engine only. The values may differ in different search engines and depends on how and from when they recruit citations in their database. Third, Scopus lists about 1.4 billion references dating back to 1970. So references before this date may not show true citation counts.
Another limitation is that our search included the terms searched only in the titles of the articles. If the authors have not given the relevant keyword in the title of the article, it will not be picked up by our search. To make such searches more robust, one of our recommendations will be to include such terms in titles of articles in future to make searching easier for such studies. Alternatively, search databases could give the keywords related to each publication in the output. The limitation of such a strategy is that historical publications which do not have keywords information would be left out.
The most cited article with the search strategy used was by Mats Brittberg of Sweden, related to ACI. Most cited articles listed in each category are influential papers in the respective categories. The limitations of our search strategy have been discussed. Search engines could make subtle changes in their listing or output to improve the search output and accuracy of similar studies in the future.
Declaration of patient consent
Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
Dr. Raju Vaishya is on the Editorial Board of the Journal.
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